Category: Mammals

Echolocation

the Echolocation (from the Greek. echo -echo and lat. locatio – use), emission and perception of reflected high frequency sounds (ultrasounds) with the purpose of orientation, prey detection or obstacles and evaluation of properties of objects. Echolocation is widespread among bats,...

Vomeronasal organ.

the vomeronasal organ, protect themselves the body Soshnikova-nasal organ, a separate division of the olfactory organs in terrestrial vertebrates. Has the majority of the amphibians, reptiles and mammals. Vomeronasal body no crocodiles and birds. Vestigial or absent in pinnipeds, some bats....

Yak

the Yak (Bos mutus Przewalsky, 1883), species of the genus bulls. The big bull with a massive long torso, relatively short legs and a heavy head. The size of the bulls: body weight about 1000 kg, a body length of about...

The oviduct

the Oviduct, duct of (usually in pairs), used for removing Mature eggs formed in the ovary. The egg falls into the expanded funnel of the oviduct, then, with the beating of the ciliated epithelium follows the fallopian tube to the extended...

Tongue

the Tongue outgrowth of the floor of the mouth in vertebrates that performs transport functionality and flavor analysis of foods. The tongue of mammals as a result of the reduction of the hyoid bone and complications of muscles are more differentiated...

Echolocation signals

the Echolocation signals, the sound signals emitted by animals with orientation in space by echolocation. Do bats distinguish snap sonar signals emitted by the language (some bats), and the voice emitted by the vocal cords (all bats). Sonar signals can partially...

The estrous cycle

the Estrous cycle (novolat. estrus – estrus), recurrent changes in the vagina of sexually Mature female mammals (except primates), respectively cyclic processes in the ovaries, oviducts and uterus. The cyclical periodicity depends on the hormonal activity of the ovaries. The whole...

Eritema

the Eritema (from the Latin. aera – a single number, the original number, era and the Greek. thema – base, the law), a group, a major subdivision of the stratigraphic scale, complex deposits formed during the same era. Eritema into the...

Era

the Era (from the Latin. ega the specific number, the original figure of era), a major division of the geologic time scale. Reflects a significant stage in the development of the Earth and life on it, within which is formed a...

Epoch

Epoch(from the Greek. epoche – delay, stop in the account of time), the division of General geologic time scale, which is a part of the period. The Epoch reflects the geologic history of the Earth and life on it, within which...

Epistrophy

the Epistrophy (from the Greek. epistre-pho — to turn, revolve), the second cervical vertebra in Amyot. Includes the body part of Atlanta that connects with the body cords (most reptiles) or fused with them (snakes, birds, mammals) to form its odontoid...

Eocene

the Eocene (from the Greek. -EO – morning, dawn, and kainos, new), Eocene division (era), middle division (era) of the Paleogene system (period). Beginning approximately 56.5 million years ago, the end — 35.4 million years ago, duration of about 21 million...

Entelodont

Entelodont (Entelodontidae Lydekker, 1883), an extinct family of pig-hoofed. Includes 7 genera. The Eocene – Miocene of Eurasia and North America; Oligocene of Kazakhstan. In Asia was part of indricotherium fauna. Characterized by the presence of zygomatic arches is peculiar, downward...

Endoparasitism

the Endoparasitism (from the Greek. endon – inside and parasitos — Freeloader), internal parasitism, that is, the parasite within the tissues, organs and the body cavity of an animal host. In some cases the origin of endoparasitism can be linked with...

Endemic

the Endemic(from the Greek. endemos -local) species distributed only in a certain geographic area. The mammal fauna of Russia endemic characteristic of the Southern Far East, Caucasus, mountains of South Siberia. For example, the argali sheep endemic to the Altai mountains,...

Embrithopoda

the Embrithopoda (Embrithopoda Andrews, 1906), a detachment of extinct placental mammals. Includes 2 families. Late Paleocene — early Oligocene of Eurasia and North Africa; in Russia – Eocene of Kazakhstan. Sizes from small to gigantic (the genus Arsinoitherium, from the elephant)....

Embryonic diapause

Embryonic diapause (from the Greek. dia – through and lat. pausa -stop, termination), the termination of the development of the embryo immediately after fertilization or at any stage of embryonic development. Embryonic diapause occurs in some mustelids (e.g., weasels) and ungulates...

Elementary rational activity

Elementary rational activity, the ability of animals with highly developed Central nervous system to solve complex tasks that require elements of the thinking process, intelligence, by trapping and active establishing and changing connections and relations between objects and events (see Extrapolation,...

Ectoparasitism

Ectoparasitism (from the Greek. ectos outside, outside and parasitos -Freeloader), parasitic on the body surface of the host. The majority of ectoparasites occurs from predators. Free bloodsuckers, such as mosquitoes, horseflies, mosquitoes, midges, gnats, represent a transition from predation to parasitism....

Environmental monitoring

Environmental monitoring (from the English. monitoring – monitoring), the system a comprehensive tool for tracking critical components of ecosystems, is designed to measure both the extent of foreign influences and reactions to them various components (soil, climate, phyto – and biocenosis)....

Ecological tolerance

Environmental tolerance, the ability of an organism to endure adverse environmental conditions. Area environmental tolerance – the interval of values for a particular environmental factor or a combination of several factors, which ensured sustainable existence of the species or the implementation...

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